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Robert A. Balk

TitleProfessor
InstitutionRush University, Rush Medical College
DepartmentInternal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Disease Critical Care
Address
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    Collapse Overview 
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    My Scopus ID is 7006497064.
    My NIH COMMONS name is ROBERT_BALK.


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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Jeganathan N, Yau S, Ahuja N, Otu D, Stein B, Fogg L, Balk R. The characteristics and impact of source of infection on sepsis-related ICU outcomes. J Crit Care. 2017 May 23; 41:170-176. PMID: 28564621.
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    2. Bramley AM, Reed C, Finelli L, Self WH, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Williams DJ, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, Stockmann C, Trabue C, Fakhran S, Balk R, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Jain S. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Outcomes among Hospitalized Patients with Community-acquired Pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2017 May 17. PMID: 28520948.
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    3. Sprung CL, Schein RM, Balk RA. To SIRS With Love-An Open Letter. Crit Care Med. 2017 Apr; 45(4):736-738. PMID: 27792041.
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    4. Sprung CL, Schein RM, Balk RA. The new sepsis consensus definitions: the good, the bad and the ugly. Intensive Care Med. 2016 Dec; 42(12):2024-2026. PMID: 27815588.
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    5. Jeganathan N, Predescu D, Zhang J, Sha F, Bardita C, Patel M, Wood S, Borgia JA, Balk RA, Predescu S. Rac1-mediated cytoskeleton rearrangements induced by intersectin-1s deficiency promotes lung cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. Mol Cancer. 2016 Sep 14; 15(1):59. PMID: 27629044.
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    6. Kleinpell RM, Schorr CA, Balk RA. The New Sepsis Definitions: Implications for Critical Care Practitioners. Am J Crit Care. 2016 Sep; 25(5):457-64. PMID: 27587427.
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    7. Balk RA, Kadri SS, Cao Z, Robinson SB, Lipkin C, Bozzette SA. Effect of Procalcitonin Testing on Health-care Utilization and Costs in Critically Ill Patients in the United States. Chest. 2017 Jan; 151(1):23-33. PMID: 27568580.
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    8. Havers F, Bramley AM, Finelli L, Reed C, Self WH, Trabue C, Fakhran S, Balk R, Courtney DM, Girard TD, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, Edwards KM, Wunderink RG, Jain S. Statin Use and Hospital Length of Stay Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-acquired Pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jun 15; 62(12):1471-1478. PMID: 27169476.
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    9. Self WH, Wunderink RG, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Anderson EJ, Balk RA, Fakhran SS, Chappell JD, Casimir G, Courtney DM, Trabue C, Waterer GW, Bramley A, Magill S, Jain S, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG. Staphylococcus aureus Community-acquired Pneumonia: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 01; 63(3):300-9. PMID: 27161775; PMCID: PMC4946021 [Available on 08/01/17].
    10. Jeganathan N, Ahuja N, Yau S, Otu D, Stein B, Balk RA. Impact of End-Stage Renal Disease and Acute Kidney Injury on ICU Outcomes in Patients With Sepsis. J Intensive Care Med. 2016 May 04. PMID: 27146924.
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    11. Chen E, Killeen KM, Peterson SJ, Saulitis AK, Balk RA. Evaluation of Pain, Dyspnea, and Goals of Care Among Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: A Comprehensive Palliative Care Survey. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2017 May; 34(4):347-352. PMID: 26843535.
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    12. Grijalva CG, Wunderink RG, Zhu Y, Williams DJ, Balk R, Fakhran S, Courtney DM, Anderson EJ, Qi C, Trabue C, Pavia AT, Moore MR, Jain S, Edwards KM, Self WH. In-Hospital Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination Is Associated With Detection of Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adults Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Dec; 2(4):ofv135. PMID: 26512357; PMCID: PMC4621456.
    13. Peng Y, Dai Z, Mansy HA, Henry BM, Sandler RH, Balk RA, Royston TJ. Sound transmission in porcine thorax through airway insonification. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2016 Apr; 54(4):675-89. PMID: 26280512; PMCID: PMC4758916 [Available on 04/01/17].
    14. Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, Fakhran S, Balk R, Bramley AM, Reed C, Grijalva CG, Anderson EJ, Courtney DM, Chappell JD, Qi C, Hart EM, Carroll F, Trabue C, Donnelly HK, Williams DJ, Zhu Y, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Waterer GW, Levine M, Lindstrom S, Winchell JM, Katz JM, Erdman D, Schneider E, Hicks LA, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Finelli L. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 30; 373(5):415-27. PMID: 26172429; PMCID: PMC4728150.
    15. Mansy HA, Balk RA, Warren WH, Royston TJ, Dai Z, Peng Y, Sandler RH. Pneumothorax effects on pulmonary acoustic transmission. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Aug 01; 119(3):250-7. PMID: 26023225; PMCID: PMC4526700.
    16. Schuetz P, Balk R, Briel M, Kutz A, Christ-Crain M, Stolz D, Bouadma L, Wolff M, Kristoffersen KB, Wei L, Burkhardt O, Welte T, Schroeder S, Nobre V, Tamm M, Bhatnagar N, Bucher HC, Luyt CE, Chastre J, Tubach F, Mueller B, Lacey MJ, Ohsfeldt RL, Scheibling CM, Schneider JE. Economic evaluation of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy in acute respiratory infections: a US health system perspective. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2015 Mar; 53(4):583-92. PMID: 25581762.
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    17. Jeganathan N, Kaplan CA, Balk RA. Ventilator Liberation for High-Risk-for-Failure Patients: Improving Value of the Spontaneous Breathing Trial. Respir Care. 2015 Feb; 60(2):290-6. PMID: 25336534.
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    18. Peng Y, Dai Z, Mansy HA, Sandler RH, Balk RA, Royston TJ. Sound transmission in the chest under surface excitation: an experimental and computational study with diagnostic applications. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2014 Aug; 52(8):695-706. PMID: 25001497; PMCID: PMC4160106.
    19. Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, Burns SM, Deutschman CS, Diekema D, Fridkin S, Greene L, Guh A, Gutterman D, Hammer B, Henderson D, Hess DR, Hill NS, Horan T, Kollef M, Levy M, Septimus E, Vanantwerpen C, Wright D, Lipsett P. Executive summary: Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 Dec; 10(6):S220-3. PMID: 24364784.
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    20. Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, Burns SM, Deutschman CS, Diekema D, Fridkin S, Greene L, Guh A, Gutterman D, Hammer B, Henderson D, Hess D, Hill NS, Horan T, Kollef M, Levy M, Septimus E, Vanantwerpen C, Wright D, Lipsett P. Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events: executive summary. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Dec; 57(12):1742-6. PMID: 24280662; PMCID: PMC3840402.
    21. Balk RA. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): where did it come from and is it still relevant today? Virulence. 2014 Jan 01; 5(1):20-6. PMID: 24280933; PMCID: PMC3916374.
    22. Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, Burns SM, Deutschman CS, Diekema D, Fridkin S, Greene L, Guh A, Gutterman D, Hammer B, Henderson D, Hess DR, Hill NS, Horan T, Kollef M, Levy M, Septimus E, Vanantwerpen C, Wright D, Lipsett P. Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events. Am J Crit Care. 2013 Nov; 22(6):469-73. PMID: 24186816.
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    23. Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, Burns SM, Deutschman CS, Diekema D, Fridkin S, Greene L, Guh A, Gutterman D, Hammer B, Henderson D, Hess DR, Hill NS, Horan T, Kollef M, Levy M, Septimus E, VanAntwerpen C, Wright D, Lipsett P. Developing a new national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events: executive summary. Am J Infect Control. 2013 Nov; 41(11):1096-9. PMID: 24176770.
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    24. Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, Burns SM, Deutschman CS, Diekema D, Fridkin S, Greene L, Guh A, Gutterman D, Hammer B, Henderson D, Hess D, Hill NS, Horan T, Kollef M, Levy M, Septimus E, VanAntwerpen C, Wright D, Lipsett P. Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events*. Crit Care Med. 2013 Nov; 41(11):2467-75. PMID: 24162674.
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    25. Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, Burns SM, Deutschman CS, Diekema D, Fridkin S, Greene L, Guh A, Gutterman D, Hammer B, Henderson D, Hess DR, Hill NS, Horan T, Kollef M, Levy M, Septimus E, VanAntwerpen C, Wright D, Lipsett P. Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events: executive summary. Chest. 2013 Nov; 144(5):1448-1452. PMID: 24189858.
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    26. Magill SS, Klompas M, Balk R, Burns SM, Deutschman CS, Diekema D, Fridkin S, Greene L, Guh A, Gutterman D, Hammer B, Henderson D, Hess DR, Hill NS, Horan T, Kollef M, Levy M, Septimus E, Vanantwerpen C, Wright D, Lipsett P. Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events: executive summary. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013 Dec; 34(12):1239-43. PMID: 24225607.
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    27. Greenfield N, Balk RA. Evaluating the adequacy of fluid resuscitation in patients with septic shock: controversies and future directions. Hosp Pract (1995). 2012 Apr; 40(2):147-57. PMID: 22615089.
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    28. Patel GP, Balk RA. Systemic steroids in severe sepsis and septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Jan 15; 185(2):133-9. PMID: 21680949.
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    29. Balk R. Roger C. Bone, MD and the evolving paradigms of sepsis. Contrib Microbiol. 2011; 17:1-11. PMID: 21659744.
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    30. Singla S, Predescu D, Bardita C, Wang M, Zhang J, Balk RA, Predescu S. Pro-inflammatory endothelial cell dysfunction is associated with intersectin-1s down-regulation. Respir Res. 2011 Apr 12; 12:46. PMID: 21486462; PMCID: PMC3096597.
    31. Tapawan K, Chen E, Selk N, Hong E, Virmani S, Balk R. A large pleural effusion in a patient receiving peritoneal dialysis. Semin Dial. 2011 Sep-Oct; 24(5):560-3. PMID: 21480997.
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    32. Bloos F, Marshall JC, Dellinger RP, Vincent JL, Gutierrez G, Rivers E, Balk RA, Laterre PF, Angus DC, Reinhart K, Brunkhorst FM. Multinational, observational study of procalcitonin in ICU patients with pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation: a multicenter observational study. Crit Care. 2011; 15(2):R88. PMID: 21385367; PMCID: PMC3219347.
    33. Gurnani PK, Patel GP, Crank CW, Vais D, Lateef O, Akimov S, Balk R, Simon D. Impact of the implementation of a sepsis protocol for the management of fluid-refractory septic shock: A single-center, before-and-after study. Clin Ther. 2010 Jul; 32(7):1285-93. PMID: 20678676.
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    34. Patel GP, Grahe JS, Sperry M, Singla S, Elpern E, Lateef O, Balk RA. Efficacy and safety of dopamine versus norepinephrine in the management of septic shock. Shock. 2010 Apr; 33(4):375-80. PMID: 19851126.
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    35. Kollef MH, Napolitano LM, Solomkin JS, Wunderink RG, Bae IG, Fowler VG, Balk RA, Stevens DL, Rahal JJ, Shorr AF, Linden PK, Micek ST. Health care-associated infection (HAI): a critical appraisal of the emerging threat-proceedings of the HAI Summit. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Oct 01; 47 Suppl 2:S55-99; quiz S100-1. PMID: 18778223.
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    36. Kinasewitz GT, Privalle CT, Imm A, Steingrub JS, Malcynski JT, Balk RA, DeAngelo J. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the nitric oxide scavenger pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul; 36(7):1999-2007. PMID: 18552688.
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    37. Modi P, Yadava V, Sreedhar R, Khasawaneh F, Balk RA. A case of flavor-induced lung disease. South Med J. 2008 May; 101(5):541-2. PMID: 18414158.
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    38. Lee WY, Balk RA. Diffuse pulmonary nodules in a 25-year-old man with diarrhea and weight loss. Chest. 2008 May; 133(5):1252-5. PMID: 18460526.
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    39. Elpern EH, Patel G, Balk RA. Antibiotic therapy for pulmonary exacerbations in adults with cystic fibrosis. Medsurg Nurs. 2007 Oct; 16(5):293-8; quiz 299. PMID: 18072667.
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    40. Patel GP, Elpern EH, Balk RA. A campaign worth joining: improving outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock using the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. South Med J. 2007 Jun; 100(6):557-8. PMID: 17591307.
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    41. Patel GP, Balk RA. Recognition and treatment of hyponatremia in acutely ill hospitalized patients. Clin Ther. 2007 Feb; 29(2):211-29. PMID: 17472815.
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    42. Patel GP, Balk RA. Choice of vasopressor in septic shock: does it matter? Crit Care. 2007; 11(6):174. PMID: 18001504; PMCID: PMC2246199.
    43. O'Connor CJ, Mansy H, Balk RA, Tuman KJ, Sandler RH. Identification of endotracheal tube malpositions using computerized analysis of breath sounds via electronic stethoscopes. Anesth Analg. 2005 Sep; 101(3):735-9. PMID: 16115984.
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    44. Lateef O, Shakoor N, Balk RA. Methotrexate pulmonary toxicity. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2005 Jul; 4(4):723-30. PMID: 16011450.
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    45. Wong F, Bernardi M, Balk R, Christman B, Moreau R, Garcia-Tsao G, Patch D, Soriano G, Hoefs J, Navasa M. Sepsis in cirrhosis: report on the 7th meeting of the International Ascites Club. Gut. 2005 May; 54(5):718-25. PMID: 15831923; PMCID: PMC1774473.
    46. Mansy HA, O'Connor CJ, Balk RA, Sandler RH. Breath sound changes associated with malpositioned endotracheal tubes. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2005 Mar; 43(2):206-11. PMID: 15865129.
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    47. Hassaballa HA, Lateef OB, Silver MR, Balk RA. Acute lung injury induced by arsenic trioxide in a patient with refractory myelodysplastic syndrome. J Crit Care. 2005 Mar; 20(1):111-3. PMID: 16015525.
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    48. Balk RA. Optimum treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock: evidence in support of the recommendations. Dis Mon. 2004 Apr; 50(4):168-213. PMID: 15133467.
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    49. Hassaballa HA, Balk RA. Torsade de pointes associated with the administration of intravenous haloperidol:a review of the literature and practical guidelines for use. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2003 Nov; 2(6):543-7. PMID: 14585064.
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    50. Patel GP, Gurka DP, Balk RA. New treatment strategies for severe sepsis and septic shock. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2003 Oct; 9(5):390-6. PMID: 14508152.
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    51. Hassaballa HA, Alshahrouri MK, Balk RA. Universal consent for invasive procedures in the intensive care unit. JAMA. 2003 Aug 13; 290(6):751; author reply 752. PMID: 12915420.
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    52. Schuster DP, Metzler M, Opal S, Lowry S, Balk R, Abraham E, Levy H, Slotman G, Coyne E, Souza S, Pribble J. Recombinant platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase to prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome and mortality in severe sepsis: Phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 2003 Jun; 31(6):1612-9. PMID: 12794395.
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    53. Balk RA. Steroids for septic shock: back from the dead? (Pro). Chest. 2003 May; 123(5 Suppl):490S-9S. PMID: 12740234.
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    54. Hassaballa HA, Balk RA. Torsade de pointes associated with the administration of intravenous haloperidol. Am J Ther. 2003 Jan-Feb; 10(1):58-60. PMID: 12522522.
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    55. Mansy HA, Royston TJ, Balk RA, Sandler RH. Pneumothorax detection using pulmonary acoustic transmission measurements. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2002 Sep; 40(5):520-5. PMID: 12452411.
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    56. Mansy HA, Royston TJ, Balk RA, Sandler RH. Pneumothorax detection using computerised analysis of breath sounds. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2002 Sep; 40(5):526-32. PMID: 12452412.
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    57. Cohen ES, Law WR, Easington CR, Cruz KQ, Nardulli BA, Balk RA, Parrillo JE, Hollenberg SM. Adenosine deaminase inhibition attenuates microvascular dysfunction and improves survival in sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul 01; 166(1):16-20. PMID: 12091165.
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    58. Balk RA. Endotoxemia in critically ill patients: why a reliable test could be beneficial. Crit Care. 2002 Aug; 6(4):289-90. PMID: 12225599; PMCID: PMC137306.
    59. Balk RA. Is a silver coating a silver lining? Chest. 2002 Mar; 121(3):682-3. PMID: 11888943.
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    60. Angus DC, Birmingham MC, Balk RA, Scannon PJ, Collins D, Kruse JA, Graham DR, Dedhia HV, Homann S, MacIntyre N. E5 murine monoclonal antiendotoxin antibody in gram-negative sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. E5 Study Investigators. JAMA. 2000 Apr 05; 283(13):1723-30. PMID: 10755499.
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    61. Balk RA. Severe sepsis and septic shock. Definitions, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations. Crit Care Clin. 2000 Apr; 16(2):179-92. PMID: 10768078.
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    62. Balk RA. Pathogenesis and management of multiple organ dysfunction or failure in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Clin. 2000 Apr; 16(2):337-52, vii. PMID: 10768085.
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    63. Symeonides S, Balk RA. Nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1999 Jun; 13(2):449-63, x. PMID: 10340177.
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    64. Balk RA. Outcome of septic shock: location, location, location. Crit Care Med. 1998 Jun; 26(6):983-4. PMID: 9635636.
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    65. Weg JG, Anzueto A, Balk RA, Wiedemann HP, Pattishall EN, Schork MA, Wagner LA. The relation of pneumothorax and other air leaks to mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 05; 338(6):341-6. PMID: 9449726.
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    66. Balk R, Emerson T, Fourrier F, Kruse JA, Mammen EF, Schuster HP, Vinazzer H. Therapeutic use of antithrombin concentrate in sepsis. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1998; 24(2):183-94. PMID: 9579641.
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    67. Grodzin CJ, Balk RA, Bone RC. Radiographic patterns of pulmonary disease. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 1997 Nov-Dec; 26(6):269-308. PMID: 9394868.
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    68. Bone RC, Grodzin CJ, Balk RA. Sepsis: a new hypothesis for pathogenesis of the disease process. Chest. 1997 Jul; 112(1):235-43. PMID: 9228382.
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    69. Opal SM, Fisher CJ, Dhainaut JF, Vincent JL, Brase R, Lowry SF, Sadoff JC, Slotman GJ, Levy H, Balk RA, Shelly MP, Pribble JP, LaBrecque JF, Lookabaugh J, Donovan H, Dubin H, Baughman R, Norman J, DeMaria E, Matzel K, Abraham E, Seneff M. Confirmatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist trial in severe sepsis: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. The Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Sepsis Investigator Group. Crit Care Med. 1997 Jul; 25(7):1115-24. PMID: 9233735.
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    70. Grodzin CJ, Balk RA. Indwelling small pleural catheter needle thoracentesis in the management of large pleural effusions. Chest. 1997 Apr; 111(4):981-8. PMID: 9106578.
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    71. Grodzin CJ, Balk RA, Bone RC. Radiographic patterns of pulmonary disease. Dis Mon. 1997 Jan; 43(1):1-62. PMID: 9055808.
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    72. Fisher CJ, Agosti JM, Opal SM, Lowry SF, Balk RA, Sadoff JC, Abraham E, Schein RM, Benjamin E. Treatment of septic shock with the tumor necrosis factor receptor:Fc fusion protein. The Soluble TNF Receptor Sepsis Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jun 27; 334(26):1697-702. PMID: 8637514.
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    73. Balk RA. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome. JAMA. 1995 Jul 12; 274(2):127. PMID: 7595995.
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    74. Golden MR, Katz RS, Balk RA, Golden HE. The relationship of preexisting lung disease to the development of methotrexate pneumonitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1995 Jun; 22(6):1043-7. PMID: 7674228.
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    75. Bone RC, Balk RA, Fein AM, Perl TM, Wenzel RP, Reines HD, Quenzer RW, Iberti TJ, Macintyre N, Schein RM. A second large controlled clinical study of E5, a monoclonal antibody to endotoxin: results of a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. The E5 Sepsis Study Group. Crit Care Med. 1995 Jun; 23(6):994-1006. PMID: 7774238.
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    76. Gluck EH, Barkoviak MJ, Balk RA, Casey LC, Silver MR, Bone RC. Medical effectiveness of esophageal balloon pressure manometry in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1995 Mar; 23(3):504-9. PMID: 7874902.
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    77. Abraham E, Wunderink R, Silverman H, Perl TM, Nasraway S, Levy H, Bone R, Wenzel RP, Balk R, Allred R, et al. Efficacy and safety of monoclonal antibody to human tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with sepsis syndrome. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. TNF-alpha MAb Sepsis Study Group. JAMA. 1995 Mar 22-29; 273(12):934-41. PMID: 7884952.
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    78. Silver MR, Balk RA. Bronchoscopic procedures in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Clin. 1995 Jan; 11(1):97-109. PMID: 7736274.
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    79. Weg JG, Balk RA, Tharratt RS, Jenkinson SG, Shah JB, Zaccardelli D, Horton J, Pattishall EN. Safety and potential efficacy of an aerosolized surfactant in human sepsis-induced adult respiratory distress syndrome. JAMA. 1994 Nov 09; 272(18):1433-8. PMID: 7933425.
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    80. Fisher CJ, Dhainaut JF, Opal SM, Pribble JP, Balk RA, Slotman GJ, Iberti TJ, Rackow EC, Shapiro MJ, Greenman RL, et al. Recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in the treatment of patients with sepsis syndrome. Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phase III rhIL-1ra Sepsis Syndrome Study Group. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15; 271(23):1836-43. PMID: 8196140.
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    81. Nawas YN, Balk RA. General approach to shock. Clin Geriatr Med. 1994 Feb; 10(1):185-96. PMID: 8168022.
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    82. Casey LC, Balk RA, Bone RC. Plasma cytokine and endotoxin levels correlate with survival in patients with the sepsis syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Oct 15; 119(8):771-8. PMID: 8379598.
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    83. Agee KR, Balk RA. Central venous catheterization in the critically ill patient. Crit Care Clin. 1992 Oct; 8(4):677-86. PMID: 1393746.
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    84. Balk RA, Parrillo JE. Prognostic factors in sepsis: the cold facts. Crit Care Med. 1992 Oct; 20(10):1373-4. PMID: 1395655.
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    85. Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, Dellinger RP, Fein AM, Knaus WA, Schein RM, Sibbald WJ. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine. Chest. 1992 Jun; 101(6):1644-55. PMID: 1303622.
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    86. Bone RC, Balk R, Slotman G, Maunder R, Silverman H, Hyers TM, Kerstein MD. Adult respiratory distress syndrome. Sequence and importance of development of multiple organ failure. The Prostaglandin E1 Study Group. Chest. 1992 Feb; 101(2):320-6. PMID: 1735248.
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    87. Simpson SQ, Modi HN, Balk RA, Bone RC, Casey LC. Reduced alveolar macrophage production of tumor necrosis factor during sepsis in mice and men. Crit Care Med. 1991 Aug; 19(8):1060-6. PMID: 1860332.
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    88. Cohn J, Balk RA, Bone RC. Dialysis-induced respiratory acidosis. Chest. 1990 Nov; 98(5):1285-8. PMID: 2225984.
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    89. Bone RC, Fisher CJ, Clemmer TP, Slotman GJ, Metz CA, Balk RA. Sepsis syndrome: a valid clinical entity. Methylprednisolone Severe Sepsis Study Group. Crit Care Med. 1989 May; 17(5):389-93. PMID: 2651003.
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    90. Schwartz DB, Bone RC, Balk RA, Szidon JP. Hepatic dysfunction in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest. 1989 Apr; 95(4):871-5. PMID: 2924617.
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    91. Petrak RA, Balk RA, Bone RC. Prostaglandins, cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, and thromboxane synthetase inhibitors in the pathogenesis of multiple systems organ failure. Crit Care Clin. 1989 Apr; 5(2):303-14. PMID: 2495847.
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    92. Looyenga DS, Liebson PR, Bone RC, Balk RA, Messer JV. Determination of cardiac output in critically ill patients by dual beam Doppler echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989 Feb; 13(2):340-7. PMID: 2913112.
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    93. Balk RA, Bone RC. The septic syndrome. Definition and clinical implications. Crit Care Clin. 1989 Jan; 5(1):1-8. PMID: 2647221.
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    94. Lee RM, Balk RA, Bone RC. Ventilatory support in the management of septic patients. Crit Care Clin. 1989 Jan; 5(1):157-75. PMID: 2647223.
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    95. Balk RA, Jacobs RF, Tryka AF, Walls RC, Bone RC. Low dose ibuprofen reverses the hemodynamic alterations of canine endotoxin shock. Crit Care Med. 1988 Nov; 16(11):1128-31. PMID: 3048901.
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    96. Balk RA, Jacobs RF, Tryka AF, Townsend JW, Walls RC, Bone RC. Effects of ibuprofen on neutrophil function and acute lung injury in canine endotoxin shock. Crit Care Med. 1988 Nov; 16(11):1121-7. PMID: 3168505.
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    97. Bone RC, Balk RA. Noninvasive respiratory care unit. A cost effective solution for the future. Chest. 1988 Feb; 93(2):390-4. PMID: 3123152.
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    98. Bone RC, Fisher CJ, Clemmer TP, Slotman GJ, Metz CA, Balk RA. A controlled clinical trial of high-dose methylprednisolone in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 1987 Sep 10; 317(11):653-8. PMID: 3306374.
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    99. Balk RA, Bradsher RW, Jacobs RF, Jones R. Bacteremia during bronchoalveolar lavage. South Med J. 1986 Dec; 79(12):1496-8. PMID: 3787285.
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    100. Jacobs RF, Kiel DP, Balk RA. Alveolar macrophage function in a canine model of endotoxin-induced lung injury. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1986 Oct; 134(4):745-51. PMID: 3532887.
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    101. Jacobs RF, Marmer DJ, Balk RA, Bradsher RW. Lymphocyte subpopulations of blood and alveolar lavage in blastomycosis. Chest. 1985 Oct; 88(4):579-85. PMID: 2931252.
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    102. Bone RC, Balk R. Staging of bronchogenic carcinoma. Chest. 1982 Oct; 82(4):473-80. PMID: 6749445.
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